Object perception, known as object recognition, is generally defined as a process in which visual input is assigned a meaningful interpretation of what is available to the perpetual awareness. It is an ability that’s given to us to be able to interpret what’s around us and act.
Object perception is said to happen through a high-level computation that occurs through a hierarchy of processing stages in the visual cortex, called the “ventral visual pathway.” This pathway is said to begin in the primary visual cortex, in the occipital lobe (area V1), and it ascends to regions in the lateral occipital cortex and ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Certain deficits may occur in the object perception, due to damages to the higher visual areas. Deficits include:
· The inability to recognize an object.
· The inability to recognize faces.
· Problems in determining the motion of objects.
· Problems with determining objects contracts.
At this, the higher-level regions ventral stream are said to be vital for conscious object perception. The knowledge of the ventral stream was based on just single-unit electrophysiology measurement tests on monkeys during the 1990s. These studies although only showed the monkeys neutrons as they respond to shapes and complex objects all displayed in the IT cortex, of which those lesions to the ventral stream could also cause a deficit in object recognition.
Selective Object Sections
There are object selective sections in the human brain which consists of a constellation of a region in the lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortex known generally as “lateral occipital complex (LOC).” The regions are determined by functionality at which scientists can only see using FMRI. By using the FMRI, scientists can determine which region of the brain the pictures or objects seen are formed using selective stimuli over certain stimuli. Then there can identify these regions through the constellations in the LOC that respond more when pictures are viewed by the subjects than when they were scrambled.
What is the Role of LOC in Object Perception?
Although we can say the activities in LOC are too much, but we cannot conclude yet that since when subjects view pictures, the activities in the LOC are high, that is where the brain performs object recognition. As we already know, every object has shapes, contour, and sizes, and as such may affect the responsiveness of the LOC and then the ability to control stimuli. There are so many factors as to what can affect the LOC responsiveness, but overall it is the format of the object and real or illusionary contours.
So scientists have tested and tried out different methods in determining the region where the brain performs object recognition. They tried subjects and picture tests, where the subjects are shown pictures close to a recognition threshold and determine the region of the most activities through brain testing. Then they also took the brain activities and compared the, during which time they noticed the region of the brain of specific responsibility for the recognition of objects.